Bibliography Of Ampalaya Con

     Ampalaya Con Carne 




INGREDIENTS:

  • 1 lb ground pork
  • 2 medium bitter melon  (sliced), ampalaya
  • 3 cloves garlic (minced)
  • 2 tomatoes (chopped)
  • 1 medium size onion (sliced)
  • 1 egg (beaten)
  • 1/2 tsp ground black pepper
  • fish sauce to taste
  • cooking oil



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HOW TO COOK AMPALAYA

  • Saute garlic, onion & tomato in a heated pan with cooking oil.
  • Add the ground pork and cook until color turns brown.
  • Add fish sauce to taste.
  • Add bitter melon and cook for about 5 minutes.
  • Put-in the beaten egg and cook for another 2 minutes. 
  • Serve & Enjoy!


-Probably of Asiatic origin.
- Pantropic.
- 1898 study reported a bitter alkaloid and a glucoside.
- Leaves and fruit yielded a bitter principle, momordicin.
- A petroleum ether extractive yielded a highly aromatic ethereal oil, a fixed oil, traces of free fatty acids and carotene.
- Ethyl ether fraction yielded chlorophyll, a glucoside-like substance and resin.
- Water soluble extractive yielded a saponin-like substance and mucilaginous bodies.
- Study for chemical constituents of leaves isolated five compounds from an 85% ethanol extract, identified as: Momordicin I (1), Momordicin IV (2), Aglycone of MomordicosideI(3), Aglycone of Momordicoside L (4) and Karavilagenin D (5). (33)
- Proximate composition of bitter gourd leaf (L), fruit (F) and seed (S) yielded moisture % 17.97 L, 10.74 F, 20.69 S; total ash % 15.42 L, 7.36 F, 9.73 S; crude fat % 3.68 L, 6.11 F, 11.50 S; fiber % 3.31, 1.7 F, 29.6 S; crude protein % 27.46 L, 27.88 F, 19.50 S; carbohydrate % 32.34 L, 34.31 F, 9.18 S; caloric value (k/cal/100g) 213 L, 241 F, 176 S. (Bakare et al., Nutritional and chemical evaluation of Momordica charantia. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010; 4:2189-2193.) (36)
- Vitamin composition (PPM) yielded A traces, E 800±14, C 66000±141, B12 5355±7.10, folic acid 20600±42.43. Mineral analysis (PPM) yielded calcium 20510±5.77, magnesium 255±0.69, sodium 2200±1.15, potassium 413±1.45, iron 98±0.23, zinc 120±1.15, manganese 156±0.33, copper 32±1.85. (Bakare et al., Nutritional and chemical evaluation of Momordica charantia. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010; 4:2189-2193.) (36)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of fruit extract yielded alkaloids, saponin, glycosides, steroids, and sterols. (see study below) (41)
- Proximate and mineral composition of fruit yielded moisture 93.20%, ash 7.36%, lipids 6.11%, fiber 13.60%, protein 27.88 6.11%, carbohydrate 34.31%, energy 241.66 kcal/100 g, magnesium 0, sodium 2.40 mg/100g, potassium 171.00 mg/100g, iron 1.8 mg/100g, zinc 0, manganese 0.08 mg/100g, copper 0.19 mg/100g, phosphorus 70 mg/100g, vitamin C 96 mg/100g.

Properties
- Considered astringent, antidiabetic, abortifacient, antirheumatic, contraceptive, galactagogue, parasiticide, anthelmintic, purgative, emetic, antipyretic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, cooling , tonic, vulnerary.
- Fruit considered tonic and stomachic.
- Studies have shown antidiabetic, adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, membrane stabilizing, antioxidant, cholinomimetic, analgesic, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-dengue, antifungal properties.


- Both wild and cultivated forms are edible.
- Fruit of wild form usually roasted over fire and eaten with salt or "heko."
- The leaves and fruit - used as vegetables - are excellent sources of Vit B, iron, calcium, and phosphorus. It has twice the amount of beta carotene in broccoli and twice the calcium content of spinach. Characteristically bitter-tasting, slight soaking in salty water before cooking removes some of the bitter taste of the fruit.
- In India, fruit eaten in curries.
Others
- Seeds with oil, employed as cosmetic.
- Leaves used to clean metals.

Other (Kitchen) Preparations
Steam ampalaya tops (upper four leaves) and eat half a cup twice daily. As a decoction, boil six tablespoons of finely chopped leaves in two glasses of water over low fire (for 15 minutes). Drink 1/3 cup, three times a day, 30 minutes before meals. Don't use aluminum pots (clay or enamel only).

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