Case Study Interview Examples: Questions and AnswersYou will need to prepare for an interview where case study questions will be asked. While preparation is required for every job interview, extra time is required to adequately prepare for case study interviews.
Providing an answer to a case study question involves much more than simply recounting the issues and problems set forth, it includes identifying the most important issues, employing sound and logical analysis, developing an action plan for addressing the problem(s) and making recommendations. Depending on the firms you're interviewing with, and the industry you work in, case study questions can be presented in verbal or written format, and address a number of topics.
In case interviews, it's not uncommon for interviewers to exclude important details when asking candidates to resolve hypothetical business problems presented. It's okay to ask interviewers for more information, and it's expected. They want to see if you can identify what information is important, and what is not.
Occasionally, interviewers provide no detail at all to test your analytical skills when adequate resources are unavailable. In these situations, it's okay to make assumptions, but they must be based on sound logic and analysis of information that is provided.
Interviewers asking case study questions are primarily concerned with how effectively you can analyze a problem, determine key factors, brainstorm ideas, and propose workable, pragmatic solutions that are supported by your analysis.
Answering Case Interview QuestionsIn the case interview, coming up with the "correct" answer isn't nearly as important as the process you use for getting there. When answering a case interview question, you want to showcase your ability to analyze a situation or business dilemma, identify the important issues, and develop sound conclusions that flow from your analysis. For this reason, it's important to use a logical framework for breaking down and analyzing the case. Some of the more common business analysis frameworks that can be employed include Porter's Five Forces, Value Chain Analysis, Four P's of Marketing, and SWOT Analysis. The framework you decide to use should be a function of the type of case you're presented.
Where a specific framework for analysis isn't readily available or applicable, a general framework or analytical approach can be applied. The most important thing is that your approach to answering the case interiew question is structured and logical.
Regardless of the type of case you're presented, there will likely be a few main parameters and several factors that influence those parameters. The first thing you want to do is identify the parameters and factors, the then determine which are key to the case output.
For example, assume the case involves a company's declining profitability. From your initial review of the case information you determine the main parameters to consider are total revenues and total costs.
After defining the two main parameters, you'd then drill down further to the factors influencing each of the parameters you've identified. You determine the factors influencing total revenues are average price of goods sold and volume of goods sold. And for total costs, fixed costs and variable costs.
With both the case parameters and factors clearly identified you give yourself the ability to steer the conversation and begin to identify possible solutions. To identify areas of concern, you'll want to explore the history of the four influencing factors. At the end of your discussion with the interviewer you may determine that it's rising variable costs that are having the biggest impact on profitability. You'll then drill down even further to determine what is causing variable costs to rise and come up with more specific recommendations.
Building a graphic representation (tree, decision diagram, etc.) of parameters, factors and other influencing elements will help you structure your thought process, keep from missing key aspects of the case, and make a strong argument for the recommendations you'll make.
Using a framework or structured approach to developing a recommendation for a case study interview question provides the added benefit of giving the interviewer something to take back and present to his or her superiors to make the case that you're the right person for the job.
Whatever you do, don't force-fit frameworks. If a particular framework doesn't apply to the case, don't use it. Most frameworks incorporate universal concepts that can be applied to various business issues. Use the concepts you've learned in school or through prior work experience to support your analysis of the case. Show your interviewer that you understand these business concepts well enough that you can apply them to the specifics fo the business issue being presented in the case.
Below we're going to present several case interview questions organized by question type. To perfect your ability to perform well in case interviews, we recommend reviewing each question and then developing a logical framework or approach for answering each one.
Standard Case Interview QuestionsAs is the case in real life, there is usually no single correct answer to standard case interview questions. As long as you're able to prove your case, using sound analysis and by demonstrating an understanding of the main case issues, you're likely to do well. Below are some common standard case interview questions that provide great practice for case interviews.
- What would be your approach for introducing a product into a foreign market? What are the risks and benefits to consider i.e. producing in your own country vs producing in the new country, etc?
- Company ABC is struggling, should it be restructured? Identify the three main problems it's facing. What is the most important problem the company is facing? How would you recommend the company address this problem? How would you turn this company around? Provide your reasoning for your recommendation(s).
- A toy company has been experiencing decline sales for the last two seasons. Research suggests that introducing several new product lines is the solution. Develop a marketing strategy for the company's largest product line, including pricing, product packing, etc.
- A large chain of retail clothing stores is struggling with profitability. Bases on your review fo the company's financial statements, what problems can you identify? Can this company be turned arounds? How would you go about deciding?
- A new Eddie Bauer Store is being opened up in London. Discuss all the marketing issues regarding the opening of this new location.
- Take in information quickly and remember what you hear.
- Identify key issues, prioritize and logically solve problems.
- Make quick, yet accurate, decisions.
- Manage time efficiently.
- Perform under pressure.
- Be aware of resource constraints.
- Identify customer needs.
- Be original and creative.
Market Sizing Case Interview QuestionsA market sizing case interview question is one where you're asked to determine the size of market for a particular product. These types of case interview questions are popular, and actually not difficult to answer if you practice. The following a few examples of market sizing case interview questions.
- Please provide the total weight of a fully loaded Jumbo Jet at the time of take off.
- How many light bulbs are there in the United States?
- How many photocopies are taken in the United Kingdom each year?
- How much beer is consumed in the city of New York on Fridays?
- How many people sell AMWAY products in the United States?
- If there are 7,492 people participating in a tournament, how many games must be played to find a winner?
- How many golf balls will fit in the Empire State Building?
- How many car tire are sold in Canada each year?
- Given thhe numbers 5 and 2000, what is the minimum number of guesses required to find a specific number if the only hint you're given is "higher" and "lower" for each guess made?
- How do you determine the weight of a blue whale without using a scale?
- Take time to think before you answer the question.
- If given a pen and paper, take notes and write down key information. Use the paper to make calculations, write down ideas and structure your answer.
- Ask additional questions if you feel you are missing information. The interviewer is often expecting you to ask to find missing information.
- Use lateral thinking and be creative. There isn't always just one right answer. Just make sure your answer is backed up by sound logic and numbers that make sense.
- Make sure you know your math. At minimum you'll need to perform some basic arithmetic or mathematical calculations.
- These quesitons are often used to test your ability to structure, as well as your ability to think laterallly, make logical links and communicate clearly.
- Make mental calculations quickly by making sensible estimates and rounding numbers up or down.
- Does your answer make sense? If you're answer doesn't make sense, chances are you've made a bad assumpation, estimate or calculation. Go back and carefully check your work and provide a new answer.
- You can use business frameworks (SWOT, Porter's Five forces, etc.) or mind mapping to support your analysis and answers, as long as it makes sense.
- Many market sizing questions revolve around issues being faced by an organization or industry. Commercial awareness can be very important to answering market sizing questions.
Logic ProblemsQuestions involving logic problems are designed to test your ability to think quickly and logically. These questions also require you to be able to perform numeracy quickly, while under pressure. The following are a few logic problems followed by their answers. Review the questions, develop your own answers, and then check your answers to see how well you did.
1. At 3:15, how many degrees there between the two hands of a clock? (J.P. Morgan interview question).
2. A fire fighter has to get to a burning building as quickly as he can. There are three paths that he can take. He can take his fire engine over a large hill (5 miles) at 10 miles per hour. He can take his fire engine through a windy road (7 miles) at 9 miles per hour. Or he can drive his fire engine along a dirt road which is 8 miles at 12 miles per hour. Which way should he choose?
3. You spend 21 dollars on vegetables at the store. You buy carrots, onions and celery. The celery cost half the cost of the onions. The onions cost have the cost of the carrots. How much did the onions cost?
4. You spend a third of all the money you have on a piano. Half of your remaining money you use to buy a piano chair. A quarter of the rest of your money you use to buy piano books. What porportion of you original money is remaining?
5. Why are manhole cover always round, instead of square?
6. In the Chicago subway system there are two escalators for going up but only one for going down to the subway. Why is that?
7. You find three boxes at the store. One contains onions. Another contains potatoes. The third contains both onions and potatoes. However, all three of the boxes are labeled incorrectly so it's impossible to tell which box contains what. By opening just one box (but without looking in) and removing either a potatoe or onion, how can you immediate label the contents of all the boxes?
8. There are 8 bags of wheat, 7 of which weigh the same amount. However, there is one that weighs less than the others. You are given a balance scale used for weighing. In less than three steps, figure out which bag weighs less than the rest.
9. There are 23 rugby teams playing in a tournament. What is the least number of games that must be played to find a tournament winner?
The following are the answers to the 9 logic problems above:
If you thought the answer was zero degrees, you'd be incorrect. At 3:15, the clock's minute hand will be pointing at 15 minutes, exactly 90 degrees clockwise from vertical. At 3:15, the clock's hour hand will exactly one quarter of the distance between 3 O'clock and 4 O'clock. Each of the 12 hours on the clock represents 30 degrees (360 degrees divided by the 12 hours on the clock). Consequently, one quarter of an hour is exactly 7.5 degrees, so at 3:15 the minute hand will be at 97.5 degrees. So there is a difference of 7.5 degrees between the hour hand and minute hand at 3:15.
Driving his fire engine 5 miles at 8 miles per hour takes 37.5 minutes. Driving his fire engine 7 miles at 9 miles per hour takes about 47 minutes. Driving his fire engine 8 milles at 12 miles per hour takes 40 minutes. So he should choose to drive his fire engine over the hill.
Answering this problem just requires some simple algebra. If we assume the cost of celery = x, then the cost of onions = 2x, and cost of the carrots is 4x, such that the total cost of all vegetables = x + 2x + 4x = 7x = 21 dollars. Consequently, x = 3 dollars. Hence, the onions cost 6 dollars.
You spend a third of all the money you have on a piano, so you're left with two thirds (2/3). You spend half (1/2) of the remaining two thirds on a piano chair, which leaves you with just one third of what you started with (1/2x2/3=1/3). You spend a quarter (1/4) of what you have remaining (1/3) on piano books, which leaves you with one twelth of the original (1/4x1/3=1/12).
A square manhole cover can be dropped down the hole if turned diagonally to the hole, where round covers can't be dropped down manholes.
People coming into the subway tend to arrive at different times, so the flow of people down the escalators is a more even stream. Conversely, when people get off the subway they typically all arrive at the escalators at about the same time. Consequently, two escalators are need to handle people leaving the subway, where only one is required for people arriving.
Just open the box that is labeled "Onions and Potatoes". Since none of the boxes are labeled correctly, this box must contain only onions, or only poatatoes. If you remove a potatoe from this box, the box must be the "Potatoes Only" box.
One of the remaining two box has to be the "Onions Only" box. However, the only you currently have it labeled "Potatoes Only", and the other is label "Onions Only". So the box labled "Potatoes Only" must be the box that contains only onions, and the box labeld "Onlions Only" must be the box that has both potatoes and onions.
Bags of Wheat
Immediately, take any 2 of the bags and place them to the side. Weigh 3 of the remaining six bags against the other 3 bags. If these bags weigh the same, that means the bag that weighs less must be one of the two that you immediately placed to one side. If this is the case, weigh the 2 bags you placed to one side against each other to find out which one weighs less. You've now found in your bag.
However, upon weighing the sets of 3 bags against one another you find that one set weighs more than the other set, place one of the bags from the set of heavier bags aside and weigh the remaining two bags to find out which one is heavier. If they are of equal weight, the you know that the bag you place to one side is the bag you're looking for.
In a tournament, every rugby team except the winner is eliminated from the tournament after being defeated just once. Hence, the number of games required to find a tournament winner is going to be one less than the number of teams, or 22 in this case.
Business Case Interview QuestionsThe following are examples of common business case interview questions:
- How would you work with a subordinate who is underperforming?
- You're consulting with a large pharmacy with stores in multiple states. This company has improved sales but experienced a decrease in revenue. As a result, it is contemplating store closings. Explain how you'd advise this client?
- You are working directly with a company's management team. It is organizing a project designed to significantly increase revenue. If you were provided with data and asked to supervise the project, what steps would you take to ensure it's successful?
- You have been assigned to work with a small company that manufactures a popular product. However, a competitor begins selling a very similar product which incorporates state of the art technology. What would you advise your client to do?
- You have been assigned to advise a company with a large Western European market. Company management wants to open the Chinese market. What advice do you have for this company?
- The firm has assigned you to consult a company intending to drop a product or expand into new markets in order to increase revenue. What steps would you take to help this company achieve its objective?
- You have been assigned to consult a shoe retailer with stores throughout the nation. Since its revenue is dropping, the company has proposed to sell food at its stores. How would you advise this client?
Case Interview ResourcesIn addition to the guides and articles presented on our website, there are several other good resources, including workshops, mock interviews, books and interactive online resources, that will prepare you for case interviews. Some of the resources we recommend are listed below.
- Vault Guide to the Case Interview
- Vault Career Guide to Consulting
- Case in Point: Complete Case Interview Preparation
- Mastering the Case Interview
- Ace Your Case! Consulting Interviews (series 1-5)
Interactive Online Resources
So, after writing the perfect resume and cover letter, and preparing at least 6 Hero Stories, it’s time to face the music. Just as there’s always a dragon to slay before rescuing the princess, there’s always a case interview process to master before landing the dream job.
Consulting firms rely heavily on case interviews to find the right candidate and, therefore, you should practice them – practice them well, start practicing them early (2-3 months prior to the interview), and then keep practicing them often. Once you have been requested to come for an interview it won’t be just to discuss your GPA, background, or experience – that ends up being important, but only later.
First, you have to show you have the skills to do the job.
Case Interviews give the interviewer an in-depth view of how you think/function under pressure, solve problems, and understand both the large picture and the smallest aspects of a problem. In addition, they are excellent test scenarios for communication on your feet. Case interviews go beyond just spouting business knowledge – you are tested on how you build and communicate a clear framework, break down problems into small pieces, develop real-world options, and recommend actionable solutions despite the presence of conflicting information.
The 2 case interview styles are Interviewer-led and Interviewee-led cases. In our Consulting Interview Bible, we go into the differences in great detail – but that’s not the point of this article. Within both case styles, there can be a mixture of case interview types.
Today, we focus on 6 types of case interviews. You could see any one of these 6 variations (and probably multiple ones) of a case interview in your final rounds, so it’s important to be familiar with each one of these (see sample case interview questions). We know we could do an entire article on each one, and very well might in the near future (comment below if you’d like to see more on this)! For now, however, let’s just get started.
We’ve ordered these from the most basic to the most complicated – when we work with Black Belt clients, we have them build up through the case types to develop increased ability as they tackle more difficult business problems.
Brainteasers are most commonly logic puzzles or riddles. They are meant to test both your analytical and creative thinking process.
Here are some sample brainteaser questions:
- How many golf balls can fit in a football stadium?
- How many miles of road are there in the United States?
In their purest form, brainteasers are uncommon in management consulting interviews, but we include them for 2 reasons. One, it’s good to be prepared for them in case you have an interviewer who decides to throw them in. Two, you solve them the same way you solve a market sizing question (see below) – by breaking down the solution into component parts.
2. Consulting Math
Consulting is a data-based industry – but where there are no facts, there are well-developed estimates. In regular math drills, you will not have the leisure of having a calculator. We are going back in time to the pen and paper and, your best resource…your smart brain. These drills are commonly elementary math but be prepared for fractions and percentages.
Again, these are not usually stand-alone case interview questions for MBB (although they can be in a time-pressured partner interview), but they are great practice for Problem Solving Tests (PST’s) and as components for longer strategic case interviews. Here’s a sample question:
- About 225 of Smith’s Investments roughly 20,000 employees have the title of partner. What percentage of all Smith’s Investments employees are partners?
- The market for lead pencils has been declining at 4%/year for the last 3 years. The original market was $24M/year. What is the market in year 3 (now)?
Unlike science math, consulting math only expects close-to-correct answers. In science or technology, a tiny margin of error can lead to major accidents. However, in business, decisions can be effectively and efficiently made based on near-perfect data/calculations.
For Problem Solving Tests, multiple questions like these are asked with a time limit – either in spoken form or in written form, and usually with under 2 minutes to answer each question. In written form, they are multiple choice questions. Make sure you know major currency exchange rates of the office you are wanting to join.
GMAT and GRE tests are excellent practice for consulting math.
3. Market Sizing
Market sizing questions are fairly straightforward and should be solved in 8-10 minutes and 4-5 steps with 1 level of segmentation. You are measuring the existing market of an item in total units or total sales ($) – it’s important to clarify up front which one it is. Sample market sizing questions include:
- How many hamburgers are consumed in the U.S. in one year?
- What is the size of the U.K. market ($) for helium balloons?
For market sizing, you are using the size of the market as the baseline to answer strategic questions like:
- How many of X exist in the market?
- How fast is the market for X growing?
- What is the $$ opportunity if a client introduces X into the market?
In most market sizing cases, the interviewer has no clue of the exact solution – nor does she care. The emphasis is more on how you arrived at your conclusion (did you go off on a tangent? could you defend your assumptions?) rather than the conclusion itself.
Also, for market sizing questions, be prepared for adjustments at the end of the case – “What if the % of the population used was this? What is your most sensitive assumption?” Because you are preparing a spreadsheet (a mini-financial model) on the fly, be prepared to adjust your inputs – just like you would on a real-life consulting project.
Profitability is the ultimate business metric, and profitability cases can address a business in any industry. This case type names a company and gives some detailed history and factual data, and poses one of three questions:
- What should Company X do about revenues (prices x volumes)?
- What should Company Y do about costs (fixed costs + variable costs)?
- What should Company Z do about overall profits (including both sides of the profit equation using metrics such as profit/unit or profit/channel)?
In our worldview, there are 4 types of profitability questions:
- Declining profitability
- Profitability – revenue-focused
- Profitability – cost-focused
- Profitability – scenarios
In the first type, profitability questions can cover why a company might be losing profits or what a company should do to increase profits creatively. Your job is to set up a framework to help them find the source of the issue. The framework should be in 2 levels, and beyond revenues and costs, it could highlight a potential internal company or product problem, competition or a global market issue, etc.
Revenue- or cost-focused profit questions aren’t necessarily posed as profit questions (the word profit isn’t used in the set-up). For example, maybe a company is integrating a new software infrastructure and they want to know if it’s a “good idea”. The focus is on quantifying the benefits of new business infrastructure solutions – benefits that translate to increased sales or reduced costs.
Also, revenue and cost questions may be focused on non-financial decision making – for example, “X is deciding whether or not to run for office. Should they or shouldn’t they?” Meaning, they are not referring to financial outcomes, but are still quantifiable – your job is to think about the issue with a 360-degree view and develop a well-structured pro and con list.
Lastly, you might encounter a weighing scenario question. You would be given 2 options and will need to weigh the profitability of one against the other. An example of this might be comparing the use of the U.S. Post Office for mailing needs versus UPS. Or maybe the company is trying 2 different types of packaging for a product; one is 3 oz. and the other is 8 oz. Which packaging would you recommend and why?
5. Market Study
Market study questions come in 3 forms:
- Market Entry
- Revenue Growth
- Market Share
The first type, market entry, addresses a scenario where a company is interested in entering a new market. You are really answering another question – how much money will they make, will they be profitable entering that market, or how should they enter that market?
In the second scenario, a company is trying to grow their revenues. Your job would be to brainstorm how they could obtain this goal. If you look at it through the lens of profitability, would it be by increasing prices or volumes (market study would be the second level of analysis)? If you look at it through the market study lens, you look at market factors (competitors, customers, supply/demand, etc.) that would affect growth plans – and profitability would be the second level of analysis. In either case, your job is to identify any warning signs that might hinder this company from achieving this goal.
A final type of market study question would address a company declining in market share. In this scenario, you need to focus on overall company growth and how it has been affected by competitors and customer loss. You are looking for a way to grow in context to the current market competition.
6. Merger & Acquisition Cases
M&A cases are the mac-daddy of all consulting cases because they include market sizing, profitability, and market study cases – with a fair share of case math thrown in. The cases will either be about whether Company A should merge with Company B or if Company Y should purchase Company Z.
Details of what type of product or services will be included and a limited amount of factual data relating to both the purchasing and the target business. When asking 1-3 clarifying questions, focus 80% on the target and only 20% on the parent/acquirer.
There are 2 types of Merger and Acquisition purchasers – financial and strategic acquirers. Understanding the motivations of both will help you identify how best to evaluate the target. Remember, however, the goal for both types of acquirers is…as always…increased profitability.
After you have a better understanding of the case types, that’s where the real work begins – developing actionable frameworks for each.
In any case type, you will need to recap the question back to the interviewer. This will help you and the interviewer ensure you understand the business problem you are solving. Make sure you include all the factual details given. Your recap should take up to 2 minutes and will reflect your understanding of what the company does, what the company is trying to decide, and how they currently make money. Be confident – it’s your first impression.
When choosing your framework to remember to identify the areas that need further examination in order to come to your conclusions. You are not being asked to conduct a hypothetical analysis.
Now that we have highlighted 6 case interview types, it’s time to get cracking!
Want more help? Grab our most popular combo – the Consulting Case Bank(550+ cases; includes a copy of the Consulting Interview Bible).
Want more reading? Check out these articles from MC on this topic: