Explanations > Theories > Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References
If we feel empathy towards a person who needs help, we are likely to help them (in proportion to the empathy felt) without any selfish thoughts. Otherwise, we will help them only if the rewards of helping them outweigh the costs.
Rewards of helping can be many and various, including relief from the distress of seeing another in trouble. This means separating true altruism from selfish concerns can be very difficult.
Beggars live totally off empathy and can be expert at putting themselves in situations to increase this, such as using children and animals.
Toi and Batson (1972) played a ‘radio station interview’ to students about a disabled person who needed help. Afterwards they received an anonymous request for help. When instructed before the experiment to be objective about what they heard, the students were much less likely to offer help than when they had been asked to focus on how the person might be feeling.
Find empathetic people or create an empathetic situation before you ask for help.
Attachment Style, Ben Franklin Effect, Buffer effect of Social Support, Prosocial Behavior
Toi and Batson (1972), Batson (1991)
Lishner, D. & Stocks, E. (2007). Empathy–altruism hypothesis. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 299-299). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781412956253.n180
Lishner, David A. and E. L. Stocks. "Empathy–Altruism Hypothesis." In Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, edited by Roy F. Baumeister and Kathleen D. Vohs, 299. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2007. doi: 10.4135/9781412956253.n180.
Lishner, D & Stocks, E 2007, 'Empathy–altruism hypothesis', in Baumeister, RF & Vohs, KD (eds), Encyclopedia of social psychology, SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 299, viewed 10 March 2018, doi: 10.4135/9781412956253.n180.
Lishner, David A. and E. L. Stocks. "Empathy–Altruism Hypothesis." Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Eds. Roy F. Baumeister and Kathleen D. Vohs. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2007. 299. SAGE Knowledge. Web. 10 Mar. 2018, doi: 10.4135/9781412956253.n180.
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