Sacrament Of Penance Homework Assignment

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Penance and the Anointing of the Sick"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Penance and the Anointing of the Sick
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLICISM

2 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for a few minutes about what the story of the woman caught in adultery (cf. Jn 8:1-11) reveals to you about the forgiveness of sins.

3 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
BASIC QUESTIONSWhat is the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation?What are mortal and venial sins?When did Christ institute the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation?KEY IDEASThe Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation is the Sacrament of Healing in which Jesus Christ himself, through the actions of a priest, forgives those sins committed after Baptism, thereby reconciling us to God and to the Church.A sin can be (1) mortal, that is, a grave offense against God resulting in a complete separation from God and spiritual death to the soul; or (2) venial, that is, a relatively minor offense that impairs but does not sever our relationship with God.Christ instituted this Sacrament when he told the Apostles, “‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained’” (Jn 20:22-23).

4 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What did Christ provide when his people are in need of spiritual and physical healing? He instituted the Sacraments of Healing: the Sacrament of Penance for spiritual healing and the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick for physical as well as spiritual healing. Why do people sometimes hesitate to receive these Sacraments? They are afraid to confess their sins or to admit they or a loved one may be dying.

5 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the Sacrament of Penance? It is the Sacrament of Healing in which Jesus Christ himself, through the actions of a priest, forgives sins committed after Baptism. What does sin weaken or even break? Sin weakens and can even break the sinner’s relationship of communion with God and his Church. How does the Sacrament of Penance continue Christ’s public ministry? This Sacrament perpetuates Christ’s ministry of spiritual healing, which he initiated during his public ministry and now continues through the Holy Spirit acting in the Church.

6 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What does each person’s sins do to the Church? They wound the Church. What does the Church do for sinners? “By charity, by example, and by prayer,” the Church “labors for their conversion” (LG 11 § 2).

7 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is concupiscence? Concupiscence is the tendency toward sin that everyone experiences, even after Baptism, as a consequence of Original Sin. How does the Sacrament of Penance relate to concupiscence? Although Baptism removes the guilt associated with Original Sin, it does not eliminate concupiscence, i.e., the tendency to sin. Christ, however, instituted the Sacrament of Penance to heal sinners from sins committed after Baptism.

8 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is sin? It is “an utterance, a deed, or a desire contrary to the eternal law” and thus an “offense against God” (CCC ). Extension: Because God is the author of human nature, sin is an act that violates human nature and harms both the sinner and others. Why does the Church distinguish between mortal and venial sins? The Church distinguishes between mortal and venial sins, because actual sins vary in seriousness and consequence. Extension: Seriousness refers to the gravity of the offense; e.g., killing one’s brother is more serious than punching him. Culpability indicates the degree of responsibility for the offense; e.g., a driver who causes an accident driving five miles above the speed limit is less culpable than one driving fifty miles above the speed limit.

9 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is a venial sin? A venial sin is an act that transgresses the moral law but is not grave enough to be a mortal sin. What is a mortal sin? A mortal sin destroys the relationship between God and the sinner, separating the person from the divine life of God and from the Church. What is the consequence of dying in a state of deliberate and unrepentant mortal sin? Having chosen to be and to remain separated from God in this life, the sinner will be separated from God for all eternity as well. This state of eternal self-separation from God is called Hell.

10 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What three conditions must be met in order for a sin to be mortal? (1) The act must be a grave, or serious, matter; (2) the sinner must have full knowledge that the act is seriously wrong; (3) and the action must be freely chosen, i.e., not be performed under compulsion. Why should everyone strive to avoid even venial sin? Everyone should strive to avoid even venial sin because all sin is incompatible with a life of holiness and wholehearted love of God and neighbor.

11 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to think of an act that constitutes a mortal sin of commission or omission, being sure to specify how this act meets all three conditions of a mortal sin.

12 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS Are venial sins trivial? No; although they do not separate the sinner from God, venial sins can lead to mortal sins more easily. Why is frequent reception of the Sacrament of Penance important? It gives grace, strengthens union with Christ, and makes it easier to recognize venial sins and to work so they do not become vices (bad habits).

13 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the distinction between a sin of commission and a sin of omission? Doing something that should not be done is a sin of commission. Failing to do something that should be done is a sin of omission. How can venial sins lead to mortal sins? A person who neglects to battle small evils will find him- or herself more likely to commit greater evils.

14 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
GUIDED EXERCISEThink/Pair/Write/Share using the following question:How does the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats illustrate the gravity of sins of omission?

15 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What are the Old Testament roots of the Sacrament of Penance? In the Old Testament, God provided his Chosen People with a ritual sacrifice to atone for sin, revealed the moral law through Moses, and sent Prophets who preached repentance and foretold the coming of a Messiah who would redeem the world from sin. What is conversion? Conversion is the continual, daily turning from sin to Christ that begins with Baptism and continues throughout the Christian life. According to Scripture, who alone can forgive sins? Only God can forgive sins.

16 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
FOCUS QUESTIONS According to the Catechism, no. 1430, what should be the relationship between interior and exterior works of penance? Interior repentance of the heart (conversion) comes first and is then demonstrated in visible gestures and works of penance. When did Christ institute the Sacrament of Penance? Christ instituted this Sacrament during a post-Resurrection appearance in the Upper Room, when he declared to his Apostles, “‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained’” (Jn 20:22-23). What dual reconciliation does the Sacrament of Penance effect? The Sacrament of Penance effects the reconciliation of the sinner with (1) God and (2) the Church community.

17 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to ask and answer three Focus Questions about the material in the sidebar, “Why Go to Confession?” (p. 321). The questions should reflect with what you consider the most important ideas in the section.

18 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
GUIDED EXERCISEPerform a focused reading of the paragraph “This authority to forgive sins…” including the quote from CCC 1445, using the following question:What is the meaning of the power of the “keys” with respect to forgiveness of sins?

19 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTStudy Questions 1-4 (p. 336)Practical Exercise 1 (p. 337)Workbook Questions 1-14Read “Celebrating Penance” through the sidebar “Indulgences” (pp )

20 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
CLOSURE Write a paragraph summarizing the essence of the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation.

21 1. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (pp. 316-321)
ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Work with a partner to complete Practical Exercise 1, an apologetic for Penance.

22 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for a few minutes about what the Parable of the Prodigal Son (cf. Lk 15:11-32) reveals to you about forgiveness.

23 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
BASIC QUESTIONSWhat are the matter, form, and minister of the Sacrament of Penance?What are the effects of the Sacrament of Penance?KEY IDEASThe matter of the Sacrament of Penance is the contrition, confession, and satisfaction of the penitent. The form of Penance is the words of absolution spoken by the priest on the authority of Jesus Christ. The minster of Penance is a bishop or priest.The Sacrament of Penance forgives mortal and venial sins, restores sanctifying grace and imparts actual graces, and reconciles the recipient with God and the Church.

24 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS Where is the Rite of Penance ordinarily celebrated? The Sacrament of Penance is normally celebrated in a confessional or reconciliation room. Extension: In the Eastern Catholic Churches, this Sacrament is often celebrated in front of an icon of Christ in the nave of the church as the penitent quietly (almost silently) confesses his or her sins as the priest or bishop witnesses and pronounces God’s forgiveness. Who may receive the Sacrament of Penance? Any baptized Catholic may receive the Sacrament of Penance.

25 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS Who must celebrate the Sacrament of Penance, according to Church law? (1) Every Catholic over the age of reason must confess his or her grave sins at least once per year; (2) no one who is aware of an unconfessed mortal sin may receive Holy Communion until he or she has been absolved in the Sacrament of Penance; and (3) in the Latin Rite, a child must go to Confession before receiving First Holy Communion. Extension: The first requirement enables Catholics to obey the Church’s precept of receiving Holy Communion at least once per year (during the Easter season). The second is based on St. Paul’s admonition to examine one’s conscience before going to Communion. What is the matter of the Sacrament of Penance? It is the “acts of the penitent”—specifically, the contrition, confession, and satisfaction of the penitent.

26 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is contrition? Contrition refers to a true sorrow for having sinned. What two kinds of contrition are there? Perfect contrition arises from love for God. Imperfect contrition arises from fear of eternal damnation or a consciousness of the “ugliness” of sin. Either is sufficient for forgiveness, although perfect contrition is better. What is confession? It is the disclosure of sins to the priest in the Sacrament of Penance.

27 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
GUIDED EXERCISEThink/Pair/Share using the following question:On the part of the penitent, what could invalidate a sacramental confession?

28 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTION Why is an examination of conscience recommended before receiving the Sacrament of Penance? It is recommended so the penitent is aware of all sins that should be confessed.

29 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What limit is there to God’s forgiveness of sins? On God’s part, there is no limit to his forgiveness of sins. What do both the Parable of the Prodigal Son and the Parable of the Lost Sheep illustrate? Both parables illustrate that God himself seeks out people when they are lost in sin and is overjoyed upon their repentance and return to him.

30 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTION What is required on the part of a penitent to be forgiven? All that is required is contrition, which includes a resolution to start anew and to avoid all sin in the future. Extension: A penitent can resolve to avoid all sin even though, realistically, he or she knows it cannot be successful. Nonetheless, while aware of this weakness, he or she must still orient the will away from sin and toward God and recommit him- or herself to the path of sanctification.

31 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
GUIDED EXERCISE Memorize an Act of Contrition (p. 324).

32 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What sins must be confessed? All mortal sins must be confessed. What sins ought to be confessed? Venial sins ought to be confessed. What does kind and number mean with respect to the Sacrament of Penance? A person should name each sin and state how many times he or she committed it.

33 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is satisfaction? Satisfaction is the carrying out of the penance imposed by the bishop or priest in the Sacrament of Penance. When should the penance be performed? It should be performed as soon as possible, ideally immediately after the Rite is concluded.

34 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the form of the Sacrament of Penance? The form is the words of absolution spoken by the bishop or priest, “I absolve you from your sins, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” Who is the minister of the Sacrament of Penance? A bishop or priest is the minister of the Sacrament of Penance. Extension: Christ is the true minister of every Sacrament, acting through his human minister.

35 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS How was the Rite of the Sacrament of Penance different in the first centuries of the Church? In the early Church, the Sacrament was generally celebrated publicly, and penances were longer and more severe. Extension: Public confession, moreover, was followed by a long and severe public penance, followed by public absolution. Today, by contrast, private confession is followed by private absolution, followed by a usually easily-performed private penance. What is the seal of confession? The seal of confession refers to the fact that the bishop or priest cannot divulge to anyone, under any circumstances, what was said to him in the Sacrament of Penance.

36 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What are the two options generally offered for individual Confession? Generally offered are (1) anonymous and (2) face-to-face. Why should a person tell the priest how long it has been since his or her last Confession? This information helps the priest appreciate the state of a person’s spiritual life. For example, a week between Confessions means something different than not having celebrated it for thirty years. Why is it a good custom to practice prayer, penance, and almsgiving in addition to sacramental Penance? These acts, good in themselves, strengthen people against temptation and guard them against sin.

37 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to summarize the various effects of a valid celebration of the Sacrament of Penance.

38 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTION What is an indulgence? An indulgence is a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the action of the Church which, as the minister of redemption, dispenses and applies with authority the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ and the saints (cf. CCC 1471).

39 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the difference between a partial and a plenary indulgence? A partial indulgence removes part of the temporal punishment due for forgiven sins, whereas a plenary indulgence removes all the temporal punishment due for forgiven sins. What is the Enchiridion? It is the Church’s official list of indulgenced prayers and actions.

40 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
GUIDED EXERCISE Mini-lecture on indulgences.

41 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTStudy Questions 5-14 (p. 336)Practical Exercise 2 (p. 337)Workbook Questions 15-29Read “II. Anointing of the Sick” through “Conclusion” (pp )

42 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
CLOSURE Write a paragraph summarizing the matter, form, minister, and effects of the Sacrament of Penance.

43 2. The Celebration and the Effects of Penance (pp. 321-326)
ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Work with a partner to complete Practical Exercise 2 on advice to give to someone who deliberately did not confess a mortal sin out of embarrassment.

44 3. The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (pp. 327-332)
ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for a few minutes on what struck you most about the miracle of the raising of Jairus’s daughter (cf. Lk 8:40-42, 49-56).

45 3. The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (pp. 327-332)
BASIC QUESTIONSWhat is the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick?What are the matter, form, and minister of the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick?What are the effects of the Anointing of the Sick?KEY IDEASAnointing of the Sick is the Sacrament of Healing that gives health to the soul—and sometimes to the body—by prayer and anointing with oil, which confers special grace on a Christian who is in danger of death from grave illness or old age.The matter of the Anointing of the Sick is oil and the laying on of hands; the form is the accompanying prayer; and the minister is a priest.The effects of Anointing of the Sick are uniting the suffering person to the Passion of Christ; bestowing graces to endure those sufferings in a Christian manner; forgiving sins; and if it is good for the person’s soul, restoring physical health.

46 3. The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (pp. 327-332)
GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to perform a paragraph shrink on CCC 1502.

47 3. The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (pp. 327-332)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the Anointing of the Sick? The Anointing of the Sick is a Sacrament of Healing that gives health to the soul—and sometimes to the body—by prayer and anointing with oil and confers special grace on Christians who are in danger of death from grave illness or old age. What does the Church exhort the sick and suffering to do? They should contribute to the good of the People of God by freely uniting their sufferings to the Passion and Death of Christ. How was sickness viewed in the Old Testament? The Israelites understood illness as somehow linked to sin and believed that repentance could lead to healing.

48 3. The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (pp. 327-332)
FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the rationale for the attitude that the man born blind was stricken with his condition because of his or his parents’ sin? It was the attitude that a person’s illness was a punishment for sin. How is suffering really connected to sin? Sin and suffering both originate in the disorder of Original Sin, but human suffering is not distributed in proportion to the sins of each individual.

49 3. The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (pp. 327-332)
FOCUS QUESTIONS When did Christ institute the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick? It is not known exactly when Christ instituted the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick, but he did heal many people, usually by laying his hands on them. He also appointed his Apostles to heal, and they obediently carried on his work and “anointed with oil many that were sick and healed them” (Mk 6:13). Why did Christ heal people? Christ healed people both to demonstrate that he is the Messiah and to show compassion for those who were suffering.

50 3. The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (pp. 327-332)

1450 “Penance requires . . . the sinner to endure all things willingly, be contrite of heart, confess with the lips, and practice complete humility and fruitful satisfaction.”

CONTRITION

1451 Among the penitent’s acts contrition occupies first place. Contrition is “sorrow of the soul and detestation for the sin committed, together with the resolution not to sin again.”

1452 When it arises from a love by which God is loved above all else, contrition is called “perfect” (contrition of charity). Such contrition remits venial sins; it also obtains forgiveness of mortal sins if it includes the firm resolution to have recourse to sacramental confession as soon as possible.

1453 The contrition called “imperfect” (or “attrition”) is also a gift of God, a prompting of the Holy Spirit. It is born of the consideration of sin’s ugliness or the fear of eternal damnation and the other penalties threatening the sinner (contrition of fear). Such a stirring of conscience can initiate an interior process which, under the prompting of grace, will be brought to completion by sacramental absolution. By itself however, imperfect contrition cannot obtain the forgiveness of grave sins, but it disposes one to obtain forgiveness in the sacrament of Penance.

1454 The reception of this sacrament ought to be prepared for by an examination of conscience made in the light of the Word of God. The passages best suited to this can be found in the Ten Commandments, the moral catechesis of the Gospels and the apostolic Letters, such as the Sermon on the Mount and the apostolic teachings.

THE CONFESSION OF SINS 

1455 The confession (or disclosure) of sins, even from a simply human point of view, frees us and facilitates our reconciliation with others. Through such an admission man looks squarely at the sins he is guilty of, takes responsibility for them, and thereby opens himself again to God and to the communion of the Church in order to make a new future possible.

1456 Confession to a priest is an essential part of the sacrament of Penance: “All mortal sins of which penitents after a diligent self-examination are conscious must be recounted by them in confession, even if they are most secret and have been committed against the last two precepts of the Decalogue; for these sins sometimes wound the soul more grievously and are more dangerous than those which are committed openly.”

1457 According to the Church’s command, “after having attained the age of discretion, each of the faithful is bound by an obligation faithfully to confess serious sins at least once a year.” Anyone who is aware of having committed a mortal sin must not receive Holy Communion, even if he experiences deep contrition, without having first received sacramental absolution, unless he has a grave reason for receiving Communion and there is no possibility of going to confession. Children must go to the sacrament of Penance before receiving Holy Communion for the first time.

1458 Without being strictly necessary, confession of everyday faults (venial sins) is nevertheless strongly recommended by the Church. Indeed the regular confession of our venial sins helps us form our conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by Christ and progress in the life of the Spirit. By receiving more frequently through this sacrament the gift of the Father’s mercy, we are spurred to be merciful as he is merciful.


1495 Only priests who have received the faculty of absolving from the authority of the Church can forgive sins in the name of Christ.

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