# Include Bibliography Latex Beamer Animation

 To do:Add other packages for creating presentations.Bonus: Add screenshots of the results.Working with columnsNavigation — see hereUsing sections & subsections

LaTeX can be used for creating presentations. There are several packages for the task, including the package.

## The Beamer package

The beamer package is provided with most LaTeX distributions, but is also available from CTAN. If you use MikTeX, all you have to do is to include the beamer package and let LaTeX download all wanted packages automatically. The documentation explains the features in great detail. You can also have a look at the PracTex article Beamer by Example.[1]

The package also loads many useful packages including .

### Introductory example

The beamer package is loaded by calling the class:

The usual header information may then be specified. Note that if you are compiling with XeTeX then you should use

\documentclass[xetex,mathserif,serif]{beamer}

Inside the environment, multiple environments specify the content to be put on each slide. The command specifies the title for each slide (see image):

The usual environments (, , , etc.) may be used.

Inside frames, you can use environments like , , , ... Also, is possible to create the frontpage, if and are set.

Trick: Instead of using , you can also use .

For the actual talk, if you can compile it with then you could use a pdf reader with a fullscreen mode, such as Okular, Evince or Adobe Reader. If you want to navigate in your presentation, you can use the almost invisible links in the bottom right corner without leaving the fullscreen mode.

### Document Structure

#### Title page and information

First, you give information about authors, titles and dates in the preamble.

\title[Crisis]% (optional, only for long titles){The Economics of Financial Crisis}\subtitle{Evidence from India}\author[Author, Anders]% (optional, for multiple authors){F.~Author\inst{1}\and S.~Anders\inst{2}}\institute[Universities Here and There]% (optional){\inst{1}% Institute of Computer Science\\ University Here \and\inst{2}% Institute of Theoretical Philosophy\\ University There }\date[KPT 2004]% (optional){Conference on Presentation Techniques, 2004}\subject{Computer Science}

Then, in the document, you add the title page :

This can be done automatically at the beginning of each section using the following code in the preamble:

Or for subsections:

#### Sections and subsections

As in all other LaTeX files, it is possible to structure the document using

\section[Section]{My section}

,

\subsection[Subsection]{My subsection}

and

\subsubsection[Subsubsection]{My subsubsection}

Those commands have to be put before and between frames. They will modify the Table of contents with the optional argument. The argument in brackets will be written on the slide, depending on the theme used.

#### References (Beamer)

Beamer does not officially support BibTeX. Instead bibliography items will need to be partly set "by hand" (see beameruserguide.pdf 3.12). The following example shows a references slide containing two entries:

\begin{frame}[allowframebreaks] \frametitle<presentation>{Further Reading}\begin{thebibliography}{10}\beamertemplatebookbibitems\bibitem{Autor1990} A.~Autor. \newblock{\em Introduction to Giving Presentations}. \newblock Klein-Verlag, 1990. \beamertemplatearticlebibitems\bibitem{Jemand2000} S.~Jemand. \newblock On this and that. \newblock{\em Journal of This and That}, 2(1):50--100, 2000. \end{thebibliography}\end{frame}

As the reference list grows, the reference slide will divide into two slides and so on, through use of the option. Individual items can be cited after adding an 'optional' label to the relevant stanza. The citation call is simply . Beamer also supports limited customization of the way references are presented (see the manual). Those who wish to use natbib, for example, with Beamer may need to troubleshoot both their document setup and the relevant BibTeX style file.

The different types of referenced work are indicated with a little symbol (e.g. a book, an article, etc.). The Symbol is set with the commands and . It is also possible to use directly, like so

\begin{frame}[allowframebreaks] \frametitle<presentation>{Further Reading}\begin{thebibliography}{10}\setbeamertemplate{bibliography item}[book] \bibitem{Autor1990} A.~Autor. \newblock{\em Introduction to Giving Presentations}. \newblock Klein-Verlag, 1990. \setbeamertemplate{bibliography item}[article] \bibitem{Jemand2000} S.~Jemand. \newblock On this and that. \newblock{\em Journal of This and That}, 2(1):50--100, 2000. \end{thebibliography}\end{frame}

Other possible types of bibliography items, besides and , include e.g. , and . It is also possible to have user defined bibliography items by including a graphic.

If one wants to have full references appear as foot notes, use the . For example, it is possible to use

\documentclass[10pt,handout,english]{beamer}\usepackage[english]{babel}\usepackage[backend=biber,style=numeric-comp,sorting=none]{biblatex}\addbibresource{biblio.bib}\begin{frame}\frametitle{Title} A reference~\footfullcite{ref_bib}, with ref_bib an item of the .bib file. \end{frame}

### Style

#### Themes

The first solution is to use a built-in theme such as Warsaw, Berlin, etc. The second solution is to specify colors, inner themes and outer themes.

##### The Built-in solution

To the preamble you can add the following line:

to use the "Warsaw" theme. has several themes, many of which are named after cities (e.g. Frankfurt, Madrid, Berlin, etc.).

This Theme Matrix contains the various theme and color combinations included with . For more customizing options, have a look to the official documentation included in your distribution of , particularly the part Change the way it looks.

The full list of themes is:

Color themes, typically with animal names, can be specified with

The full list of color themes is:

 defaultalbatrossbeaverbeetlecrane dolphindoveflylilyorchid roseseagullseahorsewhalewolverine
##### The do it yourself solution

First you can specify the outertheme. The outertheme defines the head and the footline of each slide.

\useoutertheme{infolines}

Here is a list of all available outer themes:

• infolines
• miniframes
• sidebar
• smoothbars
• smoothtree
• split
• tree

Then you can add the innertheme:

\useinnertheme{rectangles}

Here is a list of all available inner themes:

• rectangles
• circles
• inmargin
• rounded

You can define the color of every element:

\setbeamercolor{alerted text}{fg=orange}\setbeamercolor{background canvas}{bg=white}\setbeamercolor{block body alerted}{bg=normal text.bg!90!black}\setbeamercolor{block body}{bg=normal text.bg!90!black}\setbeamercolor{block body example}{bg=normal text.bg!90!black}\setbeamercolor{block title alerted}{use={normal text,alerted text},fg=alerted text.fg!75!normal text.fg,bg=normal text.bg!75!black}\setbeamercolor{block title}{bg=blue}\setbeamercolor{block title example}{use={normal text,example text},fg=example text.fg!75!normal text.fg,bg=normal text.bg!75!black}\setbeamercolor{fine separation line}{}\setbeamercolor{frametitle}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{item projected}{fg=black}\setbeamercolor{normal text}{bg=black,fg=yellow}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar primary}{use=normal text,fg=normal text.fg}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar quaternary}{use=structure,fg=structure.fg}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar secondary}{use=structure,fg=structure.fg}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar tertiary}{use=normal text,fg=normal text.fg}\setbeamercolor{section in sidebar}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{section in sidebar shaded}{fg=grey}\setbeamercolor{separation line}{}\setbeamercolor{sidebar}{bg=red}\setbeamercolor{sidebar}{parent=palette primary}\setbeamercolor{structure}{bg=black, fg=green}\setbeamercolor{subsection in sidebar}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{subsection in sidebar shaded}{fg=grey}\setbeamercolor{title}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{titlelike}{fg=brown}

Colors can be defined as usual:

\definecolor{chocolate}{RGB}{33,33,33}

Block styles can also be defined:

You can also suppress the navigation bar:

#### Fonts

You may also change the fonts for particular elements. If you wanted the title of the presentation as rendered by to occur in a serif font instead of the default sanserif, you would use:

\setbeamerfont{title}{family=\rm}

You could take this a step further if you are using OpenType fonts with Xe(La)TeX and specify a serif font with increased size and oldstyle proportional alternate number glyphs:

##### Math Fonts

The default settings for use a different set of math fonts than one would expect from creating a simple math article. One quick fix for this is to use at the beginning of the file the option

\documentclass[mathserif]{beamer}

Others have proposed to use the command

\usefonttheme[onlymath]{serif}

but it is not clear if this works for absolutely every math character.

### Frames Options

The plain option. Sometimes you need to include a large figure or a large table and you don't want to have the bottom and the top off the slides. In that case, use the plain option:

If you want to include lots of text on a slide, use the shrink option.

The allowframebreaks option will auto-create new frames if there is too much content to be displayed on one.

\frame[allowframebreaks]{% ...}

Before using any verbatim environment (like ), you should pass the option to the environment, as verbatim environments need to be typeset differently. Usually, the form is usable (for details see the manual). Note that the option may not be used with commands since it expects to encounter a , which should be alone on a single line.

\begin{frame}[fragile] \frametitle{Source code}\begin{lstlisting}[caption=First C example] int main() { printf("Hello World!"); return 0; }\end{lstlisting}\end{frame}

Internal and external hyperlinks can be used in beamer to assist navigation. Clean looking buttons can also be added.

By default the beamer class adds navigation buttons in the bottom right corner. To remove them one can place

in the preamble.

### Animations

The following is merely an introduction to the possibilities in beamer. Chapter 8 of the beamer manual provides much more detail, on many more features.

Making items appear on a slide is possible by simply using the statement:

\begin{frame}\frametitle{Some background} We start our discussion with some concepts. \pause The first concept we introduce originates with Erd\H os. \end{frame}

Text or figures after will display after one of the following events (which may vary between PDF viewers): pressing space, return or page down on the keyboard, or using the mouse to scroll down or click the next slide button. Pause can be used within etc.

#### Text animations

For text animations, for example in the itemize environment, it is possible to specify appearance and disappearance of text by using where a and b are the numbers of the events the item is to be displayed for (inclusive). For example:

\begin{itemize}\item This one is always shown \item<1-> The first time (i.e. as soon as the slide loads) \item<2-> The second time \item<1-> Also the first time \only<1-1> {This one is shown at the first time, but it will hide soon (on the next event after the slide loads).}\end{itemize}

A simpler approach for revealing one item per click is to use .

\begin{frame}\frametitle{Hidden higher-order concepts?'}\begin{itemize}[<+->] \item The truths of arithmetic which are independent of PA in some sense themselves {contain} essentially {\color{blue}{hidden higher-order}}, or infinitary, concepts'??? \item `Truths in the language of arithmetic which \ldots\item That suggests stronger version of Isaacson's thesis. \end{itemize}\end{frame}

In all these cases, pressing page up, scrolling up, or clicking the previous slide button in the navigation bar will backtrack through the sequence.

### Handout mode

In beamer class, the default mode is presentation which makes the slides. However, you can work in a different mode that is called handout by setting this option when calling the class:

\documentclass[12pt,handout]{beamer}

This mode is useful to see each slide only one time with all its stuff on it, making any environments visible all at once (for instance, printable version). Nevertheless, this makes an issue when working with the command, because its purpose is to have only some text or figures at a time and not all of them together.

If you want to solve this, you can add a statement to specify precisely the behavior when dealing with commands in handout mode. Suppose you have a code like this

\only<1>{\includegraphics{pic1.eps}}\only<2>{\includegraphics{pic2.eps}}

These pictures being completely different, you want them both in the handout, but they cannot be both on the same slide since they are large. The solution is to add the handout statement to have the following:

\only<1| handout:1>{\includegraphics{pic1.eps}}\only<2| handout:2>{\includegraphics{pic2.eps}}

This will ensure the handout will make a slide for each picture.

Now imagine you still have your two pictures with the only statements, but the second one show the first one plus some other graphs and you don't need the first one to appear in the handout. You can thus precise the handout mode not to include some only commands by:

\only<1| handout:0>{\includegraphics{pic1.eps}}\only<2>{\includegraphics{pic2.eps}}

The command can also be used to hide frames, e.g.

\begin{frame}<handout:0>

or even, if you have written a frame that you don't want anymore but maybe you will need it later, you can write

\begin{frame}<0| handout:0>

and this will hide your slide in both modes. (The order matters. Don't put handout:0|beamer:0 or it won't work.)

A last word about the handout mode is about the notes. Actually, the full syntax for a frame is

\begin{frame} ... \end{frame}\note{...}\note{...} ...

and you can write your notes about a frame in the field note (many of them if needed). Using this, you can add an option to the class calling, either

\documentclass[12pt,handout,notes=only]{beamer}

or

\documentclass[12pt,handout,notes=show]{beamer}

The first one is useful when you make a presentation to have only the notes you need, while the second one could be given to those who have followed your presentation or those who missed it, for them to have both the slides with what you said.

Note that the 'handout' option in the \documentclass line suppress all the animations.

Important: the notes=only mode is literally doing only the notes. This means there will be no output file but the DVI. Thus it requires you to have run the compilation in another mode before. If you use separate files for a better distinction between the modes, you may need to copy the .aux file from the handout compilation with the slides (w/o the notes).

### Columns and Blocks

There are two handy environments for structuring a slide: "blocks", which divide the slide (horizontally) into headed sections, and "columns" which divides a slide (vertically) into columns. Blocks and columns can be used inside each other.

#### Columns

Example

\begin{frame}{Example of columns 1}\begin{columns}[c] % the "c" option specifies center vertical alignment\column{.5\textwidth}% column designated by a command Contents of the first column \column{.5\textwidth} Contents split \\ into two lines \end{columns}\end{frame}\begin{frame}{Example of columns 2}\begin{columns}[T] % contents are top vertically aligned\begin{column}[T]{5cm}% each column can also be its own environment Contents of first column \\ split into two lines \end{column}\begin{column}[T]{5cm}% alternative top-align that's better for graphics\includegraphics[height=3cm]{graphic.png}\end{column}\end{columns}\end{frame}

#### Blocks

Enclosing text in the block environment creates a distinct, headed block of text (a blank heading can be used). This allows to visually distinguish parts of a slide easily. There are three basic types of block. Their formatting depends on the theme being used.

Simple

\begin{frame}\begin{block}{This is a Block} This is important information \end{block}\begin{alertblock}{This is an Alert block} This is an important alert \end{alertblock}\begin{exampleblock}{This is an Example block} This is an example \end{exampleblock}\end{frame}

### PDF options

You can specify the default options of your PDF.[2]

\hypersetup{pdfstartview={Fit}}% fits the presentation to the window when first displayed

### Numbering slides

It is possible to number slides using this snippet:

However, this poses two problems for some presentation authors: the title slide is numbered as the first one, and the appendix or so-called "backup" (aka appendix, reserve) slides are included in the total count despite them not being intended to be public until a "hard" question is asked.[3] This is where two features come in:

• Ability to reset the frames counter at any slide. For instance, this may be inserted at the title slide to avoid counting it:

Or alternatively this:

• The first of the above applies to section slides to avoid counting them.
• This stuff works around the problem of counting the backup slides:

## The powerdot package

The powerdot package is an alternative to beamer. It is available from CTAN. The documentation explains the features in great detail.

The powerdot package is loaded by calling the class:

The usual header information may then be specified.

Inside the usual environment, multiple environments specify the content to be put on each slide.

\begin{document}\begin{slide}{This is the first slide}%Content goes here\end{slide}\begin{slide}{This is the second slide}%More content goes here\end{slide}% etc\end{document}

## Simple presentations

The class is very powerful and provides lots of features. For a very simple presentation, a class based on can be used.

\documentclass[paper=160mm:90mm,fontsize=10pt,DIV=16]{scrartcl}\usepackage{lmodern}\pagestyle{empty}\renewcommand{\familydefault}{\sfdefault}\newenvironment{slide}[1]{\clearpage{\LARGE\bfseries#1\par}\vspace{\baselineskip}}{}\usepackage{enumitem}\setlist{noitemsep}\title{XeTaL}\author{Carl Capybara}\begin{document}\maketitle\begin{slide}{slide title} This is just some text \begin{itemize}\item Wombat \item Capybara \item Mara \end{itemize}\end{slide}\begin{slide}{Wombat title} This is just some different text \end{slide}\end{document}

## References

is a LaTeX class to create powerful, flexible and nice-looking presentations and slides. This article explains the most common features to create a presentation: make the title page, add a logo, highlight important points, make a table of contents and add effects to the presentation.

##  Introduction

A minimal working example of a simple beamer presentation is presented below.

\documentclass{beamer}   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}     %Information to be included in the title page:\title{Sample title}\author{Anonymous}\institute{ShareLaTeX}\date{2014}       \begin{document}   \frame{\titlepage}   \begin{frame}\frametitle{Sample frame title} This is a text in first frame. This is a text in first frame. This is a text in first frame. \end{frame}   \end{document}

After compilation, a two-page PDF file will be produced. The first page is a titlepage, the second one contains sample content.

The first statement in the document declares this is a Beamer slideshow:

The first command after the preamble, , generates the title page. This page may contain information about the author, institution, event, logo, and so on. See the title page section for a more complete example.

The frame environment creates the second slide, the self-descriptive command is optional.

It is worth to notice that in beamer the basic container is frame. Frame is not exactly equivalent of slide, one frame may contain more than one slides.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

##  Beamer main features

Beamer class offers some useful features to bring your presentation to life and make it more attractive. The most important ones are listed below.

###  The title page

There are some more options for the title page than the ones presented in the introduction. The next example is a complete one, most of the commands are optional.

\title[About Beamer]%optional{About the Beamer class in presentation making}   \subtitle{A short story}   \author[Arthur, Doe]% (optional, for multiple authors){A.~B.~Arthur\inst{1}\and J.~Doe\inst{2}}   \institute[VFU]% (optional){\inst{1}% Faculty of Physics\\ Very Famous University \and\inst{2}% Faculty of Chemistry\\ Very Famous University }   \date[VLC 2013]% (optional){Very Large Conference, April 2013}   \logo{\includegraphics[height=1.5cm]{lion-logo.png}}

The distribution of each element in the title page depends on the theme, see the Themes subsection for more information. Below, a description of each command:

This is important, the title of you presentation must be inside braces. You can set an optional shorter title in between brackets, in the example this shorter title is About Beamer.
Subtitle for you presentation, you can omit this if unnecessary.
First, a short version of the authors's names, comma separated, is inside brackets; this is optional, if omitted the full name is displayed (at the bottom of the title page in the example). Then inside braces are the full names of the authors, separated by an command. There's also a command that puts a superscript to reference the institution where each author works at; it's optional and can be omitted if there is only one author or the listed authors work a the same institution.
In this command you declare the institute each author belongs to. The parameter inside brackets, the acronym of the institute/university, is optional. Then inside braces is the name of the institute; if there's more than one institute they must be separated with an command. The is optional, this is for the superscripts in the previous command to work.
In this declaration you can set the name and date of the event where you are going to present your slides. The parameter inside brackets is an optional shorter name, in this example is displayed at the bottom of the title page.
Here you define a logo to be displayed. In this theme the logo is set at the lower right corner. You can use only text or include an image.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

Usually when you have a long presentation, it's convenient to divide it into sections or even subsections. If this is the case, it's also recommended to add a table of contents at the beginning of the document. Below is an example of how to do it:

As you see, is simple. Inside the frame environment you set the title and add the command .

It's also possible to put the table of contents at the beginning of each section and highlight the title of the current section. Just add the code below to the preamble of your LaTeX document:

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

###  Adding effects to a presentation

In the introduction was presented a simple slide using the delimiters. It was mentioned that frame is not equivalent to slide, the next example will illustrate why, by adding some cool effects to the slideshow.

 \begin{frame}\frametitle{Sample frame title} This is a text in second frame. For the sake of showing an example.   \begin{itemize}\item<1-> Text visible on slide 1 \item<2-> Text visible on slide 2 \item<3> Text visible on slide 3 \item<4-> Text visible on slide 4 \end{itemize}   \end{frame}

In the final PDF file this code will generate 4 slides. This is intended to provide a visual effect in the presentation.

In the code there's a list, declared by the commands, and next to each is a number enclosed in two special characters: . This will determine in which slide the element will appear, if you append a at the end of the number, the item will be shown in that and the subsequent slides of the current frame, otherwise it will appear only in that slide. Check the animation for a better understanding of this.

The effects can be applied to a any type of text, not only to the itemize environment. There's a second command whose behaviour is similar, but it's simpler since you don't have to specify the slides where the the text will be unveiled.

{\begin{frame} In this slide \pause   the text will be partially visible \pause   And finally everything will be there \end{frame} }

This code will generate three slides to add a visual effect to the presentation. will prevent the text below this point and above the next declaration to appear in the current slide.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

##  Highlighting important sentences/words

In a presentation is a good practice to highlight the important points to make it easier for your audience to identify the main topic.

\begin{frame}\frametitle{Sample frame title}   In this slide, some important text will be \alert{highlighted} beause it's important. Please, don't abuse it.   \begin{block}{Remark} Sample text \end{block}   \begin{alertblock}{Important theorem} Sample text in red box \end{alertblock}   \begin{examples} Sample text in green box. "Examples" is fixed as block title. \end{examples}\end{frame}

If you want to highlight a word or a phrase within a paragraph, the command will change the stile of the word inside the braces. The way the highlighted text will look depends on the theme you are using.

To highlight a paragraph with, concepts, definitions, theorems or examples; the best option is to put it inside a box. There are three types of boxes and is up to you to decide which one better fits in your presentation. Below a description of the commands:

A block box will wrap the text in a box with the same style as the rest of the presentation. The text inside the braces after the code is the title of the box.
The same as block but the style contrasts the one used by the presentation.
Again, is very similar to block, the box has a different style but less contrasting than alertblock.

There are some aspects of a Beamer presentation that can be easily customized. For instance, you can set different themes, colours and change the default text layout into a two-column format.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

###  Themes and colorthemes

To use a different themes in your slideshow is really easy. To set the theme you want is straightforward. For example, the Madrid theme (most of the slideshows in this article use this theme) is set by the next command in the preamble:

Below are are two more examples:

 Berkeley beamer theme Copenhagen beamer theme

The themes can be combined with a colortheme. This changes the colour used for different elements.

You must put the statement below the command.

Check the table of screenshots of different themes and colorthemes at the Reference guide.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

###  Fonts

You can change several parameters about the fonts. Here we will mention how to resize them and change the type of font used.

The font size can be passed as a parameter to the beamer class at the beginning of the document preamble. Below is an example of how a 17 font size looks like.

Available font sizes are 8pt, 9pt, 10pt, 11pt, 12pt, 14pt, 17pt, 20pt. Default font size is 11pt (which corresponds to 22pt at the full screen mode).

To change the font types in your beamer presentation there are two ways, either you use a font theme or import directly a font from your system. Let's begin with a font theme:

The is self-descriptive. The available themes are: structurebold, structurebolditalic, structuresmallcapsserif, structureitalicsserif, serif and default.

You can also import font families installed in your system.

The command imports the bookman family font to be used in the presentation. The available fonts depend on your LaTeX installation, the most common are: mathptmx, helvet, avat, bookman, chancery, charter, culer, mathtime, mathptm, newcent, palatino, pifont and utopia.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

###  Columns

Sometimes the information in a presentation looks better in a two-column format. In such cases use the columns environment:

\begin{frame}\frametitle{Two-column slide}   \begin{columns}   \column{0.5\textwidth} This is a text in first column. $$E=mc^2$$ \begin{itemize}\item First item \item Second item \end{itemize}   \column{0.5\textwidth} This text will be in the second column and on a second tought this is a nice looking layout in some cases. \end{columns}\end{frame}

After the frame and frametitle declarations start a new columns environment delimited by the . You can declare each column's width with the code, a lower number will shrink the width size.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX

##  Reference guide

Below is a table with screenshots of the title page and a normal slide in Beamer using different combinations of themes (rows) and colorthemes (columns). To have a complete list of themes and colorthemes see the further reading section for references.

Open an example of the Beamer package in ShareLaTeX